A total of 1631 differentially expressed genes (DEGs; 1046 up-regulated and 585 down-regulated) and 346 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs; 138 increased and 208 decreased) were detected in the mammary glands between the CS- and AH-fed animals. Expression patterns of 33 DEPs (18 increased and 15 decreased) were consistent with the expression of their mRNAs. Compared with the mammary gland of AH-fed cows, the marked expression changes found in the mammary gland of CS group were for genes involved in reduced mammary growth/development (COL4A2, MAPK3, IKBKB, LGALS3), less oxidative phosphorylation (ATPsynGL, ATP6VOA1, ATP5H, ATP6VOD1, NDUFC1), enhanced lipid uptake/metabolism (SLC27A6, FABP4, SOD2, ACADM, ACAT1, IDH1, SCP2, ECHDC1), more active fatty acid beta-oxidation (HMGCS1), less amino acid/protein transport (SLC38A2, SLC7A8, RAB5a, VPS18), reduced protein translation (RPS6, RPS12, RPS16, RPS19, RPS20, RPS27), more proteasome- (PSMC2, PSMC6, PSMD14, PSMA2, PSMA3) and ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation (UBE2B, UBE2H, KLHL9, HSPH1, DNAJA1 and CACYBP), and more protein disassembly-related enzymes (SEC63, DNAJC3, DNAJB1, DNAJB11 and DNAJC12).
Gene ontology (GO) categories assigned to the differentially expressed genes (DEGs, inner cycle) and proteins (DEPs, outer cycle) in the mammary gland of cows fed either corn stover (CS) or alfalfa hay (AH). The differentially expressed genes were classified into cellular component, biological process, and molecular function by WEGO (Web Gene Ontology Annotation Plot) according to the GO terms
These results indicate that the lower milk production in the CS-fed dairy cows compared with the AH-fed cows was associated with a network of mammary gene expression changes, importantly, the prime factors include decreased energy metabolism, attenuated protein synthesis, enhanced protein degradation, and the lower mammary cell growth. This study provides insights into the effects of the varying quality of forages on mammary metabolisms, which can help the improvement of strategies in feeding dairy cows with CS-based diet.