The toxicity of β-diketone antibiotics (DKAs), a class of ‘‘pseudo-persistent’’ environmental pollutants, to F0-zebrafish (Danio rerio) was recently investigated by researchers from Wenzhou Medical University using 7-dpf F1-zebrafish miRNA sequencing and bioinformatics analyses. Based on relative expression, 47, 134 and 118 of 193 mature miRNAs were differentially expressed between control vs 6.25 mg/L, control vs 12.5 mg/L and 6.25 vs 12.5 mg/L treatments, respectively...
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The human gammaherpesviruses Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), which are associated with a variety of diseases including tumors, produce various small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs) such as microRNAs (miRNAs). Like all herpesviruses, they show two stages in their life cycle: lytic replication and latency. During latency, hardly any viral proteins are expressed to avoid recognition by the immune system. Thus, sncRNAs might be exploited since they are less likely to be recognized...
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Sigma factors are necessary for the initiation of transcription by RNA polymerase in bacteria and plastids of plants. In plants, a small family of nuclear genes is responsible for encoding the sigma factor proteins. In a recent study, researchers performed a genome-wide identification and expression analysis of leaf gradient in millet (Setaria italica) to characterize sigma factor genes and their proteins. By applying several bioinformatics tools, they identified chromosome locations of seven sigma factor genes in millet and their protein 3D structures...
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Muscle cells are able to trans-differentiate into adipocytes with adipogenesis induction. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding RNAs, widely participate in the regulation of growth and development of cells. However, the expression and regulatory role of miRNAs in the trans-differentiation of muscle cell are largely unknown...
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a group of small non-coding RNAs, can regulate gene expression by triggering translation repressing and/or RNA degradation. Recent studies proved that they were deeply involved in tumorigenesis. In a recent study, a team led by researchers from the Medical College of Georgia show that, compared with the two normal prostate cell lines, eighteen miRNAs detected by LC Sciences miRNA microarray were over-expressed and 18 showed lower levels of expression in at least 2 of 3 cancer cell lines...
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Glomerular mesangial cells (MCs) hypertrophy is one of the earliest pathological abnormalities in diabetic nephropathy (DN), which correlates with eventual glomerulosclerosis. A recent study led by researchers from Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine aimed to investigate the therapeutic role of miRNA in diabetic glomerular MCs hypertrophy and synthesis of extracellular matrix (ECM)...
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The occurrence of drug resistance limits the efficacy of platinum compounds in the cure of ovarian carcinoma. Since microRNAs (miRNAs) may contribute to this phenomenon by regulating different aspects of tumor cell response, the aim of a recent study by researchers from Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori sought to exploit the analysis of expression of miRNAs in platinum sensitive/resistant cells in an attempt to identify potential regulators of drug response...
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For successful embryo implantation, endometrial stromal cells must undergo functional and morphological changes, referred to as decidualization. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate implantation and decidualization are not well defined. Recent work by researchers from the University of Texas Southwestern used LC Sciences miRNA microarray service to demonstrate that the estradiol- and progesterone-regulated miR-200 family...
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The 16S rRNA gene is a highly conserved component of the transcriptional machinery of all DNA-based life forms and thus is highly suited as a target gene for sequencing DNA in samples containing up to thousands of different species. 16S rRNA gene sequencing is commonly used for identification, classification and quantitation of microbes in complex biological mixtures such as environmental samples like water, soil or air, and microbiome samples such as milk or feces...
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Introduction The 16S rRNA gene is a highly conserved component of the transcriptional machinery of all DNA-based life forms and thus is highly suited as a target gene for sequencing DNA in samples containing up to thousands of different species. 16S rRNA gene sequencing is commonly used for identification, classification and quantitation of microbes in […]
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