Magnesium-protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester cyclase (MPEC) catalyzes the conversion of MPME to divinyl protochlorophyllide (DVpchlide). This is an essential enzyme during chlorophyll (Chl) biosynthesis but details of its function in rice are still lacking. In a recent study, researchers identified a novel rice mutant yellow-leaf 1 (yl-1), which showed decreased Chl accumulation, abnormal chloroplast ultrastructure and attenuated photosynthetic activity...
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Transmembrane protein 100 (TMEM100) was first identified as a transcript from the mouse genome. Recent studies have demonstrated that TMEM100 is involved in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) malignancy. However, the distribution and clinical significance of TMEM100 in non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) remains poorly understood. A recent study aimed to explore the significance of TMEM100 expression in NSCLC...
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Astragalus Polysaccharide (APS), the main active ingredient of Astragalus membranaceus, has extensive biological activities related to immune, metabolic, and anti-oxidative regulatory processes. Previous studies have proven that piRNAs could play important roles in genital glands. A recent study aimed to identify differentially expressed piRNAs in chicken testes in response to dietary APS supplements and further evaluate the roles of these piRNAs related to the effect of dietary APS supplements on testicular changes...
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Nonalcoholic fibrosing steatohepatitis is a uniform process that occurs throughout nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to be involved in the biological processes, but the role and molecular mechanism of miRNAs in NAFLD are not entirely clear. In a recent study, researchers from The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University observed a significant reduction in the expression of miR-130a-3p in livers of a mouse model with fibrosis induced by a methionine–choline-deficient diet, of NAFLD patients, and in activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs)...
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A recent study aimed to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in regulating retinal neovascularization and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Their study randomly divided a total of 80 healthy C57BL/6 neonatal mice into the oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) group (n=40), in which 7-day-old mice were maintained in 75% oxygen conditions for 5 days, or the control group (n=40)...
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Ginseng and its polysaccharides (GPS) are well known immune modulators. A recent study by researchers from South China Agricultural University was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplemental GPS on the immune responses involved in sow's milk-derived exosomal shuttle RNAs (esRNAs) using RNA-Seq and miRNA-Seq...
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To better control gastrointestinal nematode infections in humans and animals, it is important to understand the strategies used by these parasites to modulate the host immune system. In this regard, molecules released by parasites have been attributed crucially important roles in host-parasite negotiations. A team led by researchers from McGill University characterized the excretory/secretory (E/S) microRNA (miRNA) and protein profiles from the mouse gastrointestinal nematode parasite Trichuris muris.
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Important roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulating the host response during viral infection have begun to be defined. However, little is known about the functional roles of miRNAs within an in vivoacute viral encephalitis model. Therefore, researchers from the University of Manitoba identified global changes in miRNA expression during acute herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSVE) in mice...
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Although the molecular basis of carpel fusion in maize ovary development remains largely unknown, increasing evidence suggests a critical role of microRNAs (miRNAs). In a recent study, researchers from Henan Agricultural University used a combination of miRNA sequencing, degradome and physiological analyses to characterize carpel fusion development in maize ovaries to show incompletely (IFC) and completely fused carpels (CFC)...
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Agricultural productivity is severely hampered by drought in many parts of the globe. It is well-known that wild plant species can tolerate drought better compared with their closely related cultivated plant species. Better drought adaptation of wild species over cultivated ones is attributed for their ability to differentially regulate gene expression. miRNAs, known to regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level, are believed to play an important role in plant adaptation to stresses. A recent study aimed to evaluate miRNA dynamics in a drought-tolerant wild Ipomoea campanulata L. and drought-sensitive cultivated Jacquemontia pentantha(Jacq.) of the family Convolvulaceae under ex situ drought...
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