Technical Bulletin

LC Sciences now offers a comprehensive epitope mapping service for high throughput, high-resolution identification of epitopes and other protein-protein interactions.


Immunological Studies

  • Identifying specific substrate for a known antibody
  • Identifying immunodominant regions in antigens
  • Quantitative measurement of binding curves
  • Multiplex antigen binding assays
  • Developing immunological tools for clinical applications
  • Studying immune networks

Vaccine Development

  • Developing specific antibodies by pre-screening cross-reactivity
  • Mapping antibody cross-reactivity
  • Developing new antigen agents for novel antibodies
  • Developing epitope-vaccine therapies
  • Developing inhibitor of antigen-antibody

Biosensor Development

  • Detecting autoimmune-response antibodies
  • Screening biomarkers from biological samples such as blood serum or cell lysate

Comprehensive Service

This is a comprehensive epitope mapping service. Just send us your protein/antibody sample and we’ll perform all the necessary functions from sample assay to data analysis.

Our comprehensive Epitope Mapping service includes:

  • Assistance with sequence designs
  • Synthesis of a custom designed epitope mapping – peptide microarray on a PepArray™ microfluidics chip
  • Pre-staining the chip to assess synthesis quality and obtain baseline signal before the sample is applied
  • All on-chip binding reactions
  • Detection of the bound sample using standard immunological detection techniques
  • Array image scan and data extraction
  • Data analysis – Basic data analysis (background subtraction, control and reference signal guided data processing, list of detected signals, data averaging, results summarized in a report) is included with our array service.
  • Optional in-depth analysis based on your specific application is available.

High Throughput Microarray Format

Epitope mapping on a peptide microarray offers the opportunity to study thousands (up to tens of thousands of peptides/chip) of specific binding sequences in a single experiment. One experiment using our 4K epitope mapping – peptide microarray is equivalent to 41 experiments using a 96-well plate. A 30K microarray format is also available.

Microfluidic Technology

  • A proprietary PepArray™ microfluidics chip is used.
  • The microarray chip consists of thousands of three-dimensional chambers and is a closed system.
  • Dye oxidation and deterioration are not an issue!
  • The microfluidic technology produces a uniform distribution of the sample solutions on the array and enhances binding reactions and stringency wash processes.
  • Experiments have well-controlled temperature and flow rate and the reaction conditions are reproducible.
  • The microfluidics assay consumes as little as 70µl of total sample and is highly sensitive.

In situ Synthesis

  • In situ peptide synthesis using PGA (photogenerated acid) coupled with conventional t-Boc chemistry means high peptide quality, tight process control, and complete content flexibility.
  • Our advanced manufacturing process ensures highly uniform spots and high reproducibility across lots of arrays and yet permits total customization of contents on each individual array.
  • In comparison, spotted microarrays tend to suffer from poor spot uniformity and large spot to spot and array to array variations, which lead to large data deviations.
  • The spotting process requires significant up-front investment for peptide libraries and spotting equipment and permits no flexibility for content update or customization.


  • We have a comprehensive set of bioinformatics tools and extensive experience in microarray work.
  • We will work with you from peptide selection, array design, experiment, to data analysis.
  • We understand that what you need is to obtain reliable and rich information that is not obtainable with a single assay or even a 96-well format assay.

Custom Microarray Content

On-Chip Synthesis

Peptides are synthesized on-chip, not pre-synthesized and spotted. There is no up-front cost to pre-synthesize a peptide library. We can synthesize a completely custom one-of-a-kind peptide microarray specifically for your experiment delivering results that cannot be achieved with an off-the-shelf assay. With the ability to program new sequence designs on the fly, you can quickly revise microarray design and content to keep experiments moving forward based on previous results.

Sequence Design

  • Design your own high density epitope – peptide microarray
  • If you already have epitope sequences in mind, we can synthesize a completely custom microarray specifically for your experiment.
  • Basic array design is 4K customer defined 8-mer sequences. Inquire about additional length and additional sequence density arrays.
  • You choose the number of redundancies of each sequence.
  • Ask us for assistance with design of your high density epitope – peptide microarray
  • Please complete a Peptide Microarray Service – Project Description Form or send us an email (

Sequence Variants

  • We can easily synthesize all possible variants of your known epitope sequence of interest.
  • Example Sequence: YPYDVPDYA

Quantitative Results

Microfluidic epitope mapping – peptide microarrays using our PepArray™ technology produce more uniform spots and enhanced binding kinetics to deliver a more reliable reading of the assay signals. Well designed positive and negative controls as well as multiple replicates of each peptide sequence contribute to data confidence.

Quantitative References and Stringent Assay

  • Protein, antibody, or other analyte samples of varying concentration may be used to obtain their titration curve – peptide microarrays are reusable for quantitative measurements.
  • Well-designed negative and positive control references to ensure reliable results.
  • Uniform spots produce more reliable reading of the assay signals.
  • Established microarray analysis software to extract detectable signals after non-linear baseline correction of quantitative calculations using reference signals and statistical analyses.
  • Vary spot densities for a peptide to quantitatively measure binding affinity.

Reliable Results

  • In situ synthesized epitope – peptide microarrays using our PepArray™ technology deliver uniform spots compared to spotted arrays which produce a more reliable reading of the assay signals.
  • Microfluidic technology means experiments have well-controlled temperature and flow rate and the reaction conditions are reproducible.
  • Multiple QC steps are implemented at various stages of our microarray manufacturing and assay processes.
  • Multiple QC control peptides are synthesized on chip and used for monitoring synthesis and assays.
  • Multiple replicates of each peptide sequence also contributes to data confidence.

Picoliter Scale Titer Plate Microarrays

Our unique PepArray™ technology makes it possible for us to vary the density of peptides synthesized across an array. Repeating sequences of the same peptide can be synthesized at different molecular densities and thus are presented at different “concentrations” creating a gradient across the array. A 4K feature microarray can generate the same amount of data equivalent to that of 40 conventional 96-well microtiter plates. Generate hundreds of association curves with a single experiment.

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