Liquid Biopsy

In the past, differential profiling and functional studies have been performed mainly using tissues samples collected by invasive methods. However, in a clinical setting, more convenient and non-invasive methods are required, such as collection of peripheral blood or other bodily fluids…

Mutation Screening

The DNA sequence of a chromosome can be altered in a number of ways including: substitutions, insertion, deletion, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Mutations are associated with a wide range of clinical problems, including cancer…

Companion Diagnostics

An integral part of precision medicine involves the pairing of a drug with diagnostic tests (companion diagnostics) that have the potential to assess a person’s specific genetic make-up, thereby predicting drug efficacy, drug resistance and therapeutic response….


Immunotherapy, also called biologic therapy, is a type of cancer treatment designed to boost the body’s natural defenses to fight the cancer. It uses substances either made by the body or in a laboratory to improve or restore immune system function…

Personalized cancer treatment is being made possible by advanced diagnostic and informatics
approaches that provide understanding of the molecular basis of disease.

breast cancer

Breast cancer is one of the most common types of cancer and has the highest cancer-specific mortality rate in women worldwide. It is therefore essential to better understand the underlying molecular mechanisms and to develop novel approaches for the prevention, treatment, and management of breast cancer. Currently, treatment strategy for breast cancer include locoregional treatment with surgery and radiation, plus systemic treatment with chemotherapy, endocrine, and biologic therapies1.

Chemotherapy has been well established as a mainstay for the treatment of breast cancer, improving the prognosis and survival rate of patients with breast cancer. Despite their efficacy, there is still a subset of patients who do not respond to chemotherapeutic drugs and, as a result, have a much poorer prognosis. Molecular mechanisms of chemotherapy resistance have been correlated with both genetic and epigenetic changes, including drug-induced mutations, aberrations of drug metabolic enzymes, cell cycle- and apoptosis-associated genes, DNA methylation and histone modifications2.


Accounting for 1.2 million deaths each year, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the primary cause of cancer mortality in both sexes, with an overall five-year survival rate of only 10–15%. Despite therapeutic advances in recent years, the high mortality of patients with NSCLC has not been substantially reduced, largely because of the potential of invasion, metastasis, and frequent recurrence. Thus there is an urgent need for developing therapeutic methods to improve the outcome of patients with lung cancer. In NSCLC, the leading death cause is chemotherapy resistance and metastasis, yet the underlying mechanisms of them remain largely unclear1.

Therapeutic responses to drugs such as gefitinib may persist for as long as 2–3 years; however, drug resistance eventually emerges and this limits the mean duration of response to 6–8 months. Recent advances in bioinformatics and high-throughput technologies, such as microarray analysis, are increasing the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying drug sensitivity and biological processes2.

prostate cancer

Prostate cancer (PCa) has become one of the most common malignancies in men worldwide, with strongly varying rates of tumor progression and responses to treatment. If the tumor is confined to the prostate, patients can be treated by surgical removal of the tumor or by radiation, with high efficacy. By contrast, therapy for unconfined tumors still represents a major problem1.

Though cancer metastasis is a highly complex multi-step process facilitated by several key events and molecular players, the most effective way known to prevent this progression is by identifying and targeting the various genes involved in the process(es)2.

A number of techniques are currently available for assessing prostate health, the most common of which include digital rectal exam (DRE), trans-rectal ultrasonography (TRUS), and prostate specific antigen-based testing (PSA), however, miRNA expression “signatures” are expected to offer serious potential for diagnosing and prognosing cancers in the near future3.

colon cancer

Pancreatic cancer exhibits aggressive features with 1-year relative survival rate of only 21% . Such high mortality of pancreatic cancer could in part be due to the capacity of pancreatic cancer cells to acquire rapid cell proliferative, invasive, and metastatic characteristics during the development and progression of pancreatic cancer. Only early pancreatic cancers can be removed by surgery. Unfortunately, early pancreatic cancer only accounts for a very small numbers of patients (about 20% of all pancreatic cancer diagnosed). Moreover, chemotherapies for unresectable pancreatic cancer are not effective for most patients. Therefore, it is important to understand the molecular mechanism(s) involved in the aggressive growth characteristics of pancreatic cancer. By knowing the altered molecular signaling in pancreatic cancer, novel targeted and combination therapies could be designed to inhibit the aggressiveness of pancreatic cancer so that the patients with pancreatic cancers could be treated with better outcome1.

LC Sciences offers a range of services applicable to clinical cancer research . Contact us to find out more.

VariantPro™ Targeted Sequencing

The VariantPro system is an innovative multiplex PCR based targeted sequencing method that accomplishes target selection, library preparation and molecular tagging in a simple one-step workflow. [learn more…]

Exome Sequencing

Exome sequencing is an efficient strategy to selectively sequence the coding regions of the genome as a less expensive but still effective alternative to whole genome sequencing. [learn more…]

Cancer Antigen Arrays

The additional knowledge gained by studying the response to antigens at the epitope level will help us further understand anti-tumor immunity and may also help us to monitor cancer progress and cancer vaccine efficacy in the future. [learn more…]

Protein Profiling Arrays

Systems Biology has emerged as an effective approach to studying complex interactions within biological systems. By studying entire networks or pathways, we can better understand the underlying structure of cell signaling networks. [learn more…]

microRNA Profiling

microRNAs are small noncoding RNA molecules that function broadly as negative regulators of gene expression to control a wide range of cellular processes. [learn more…]

RNA Sequencing

Our comprehensive sequencing services make use of the latest in next-gen sequencing technologies. Illumina’s industry-leading RNA sequencing methods enable discovery [learn more…]