Exosomes are small membrane vesicles secreted by most cell types. They are first found in reticulocytes and play important roles in cell-to-cell communication. Recent studies suggest that exosomes secreted by tumor cells containing tumor specific proteins and miRNAs and that exosomes purified from high grade bladder cancer can promote cancer progression. A recent study by researchers from the University of Rochester aimed to characterize the genetic contents in bladder cancer exosomes through mass spectrometry and LC Sciences’ miRNA microarray service. In their study, investigators purified exosomes from bladder cancers, immortalized bladder cells, and theurine of healthy volunteers and muscle invasive bladder cancer patients. Via proteomics analysis, they identified several cancer associated exosomal proteins that were found only in bladder cancer, including EDIL-3, an anagiogenic protein in their previous report. Functional characterization of those proteins was undertaken with a focus on periostin an extracellulear matrix protein. Because exosomes also contain miRNAs that regulate cellular behaviors, researchers performed miRNA expression profiling via microarray on exosomes from high grade bladder cancer cells, and immortalized bladder cells. The differences in miRNA expression were compared and determined by a student T test (P<0.05). Results showed significant differential miRNA expression between cancer cells vs normal cells. Some cancer-specific miRNAs, which have shown to play critical roles in tumorigenesis and cancer progression, were identified and will be a priority in their future studies. Ultimately the work put forth in this paper contributes to our understanding of how exosomes contribute to bladder cancer biology and may elucidate novel urine exosomes markers for bladder cancer diagnosis.

Related Service

miRNA Microarray Service – LC Sciences provides a microRNA (miRNA) expression profiling service using microarrays based on our in-house developed µParaflo® technology platform. We have standard arrays for all mature miRNAs of all species available in the latest version of the miRBase database (Release 21, July 2014). Our service is comprehensive and includes sample labeling, array hybridization, image data processing and in-depth data analysis. Two-three weeks after receiving your total RNA samples, we’ll send you both the raw and fully analyzed data. [Learn more…]


Reference

Yu-Ru L, Christopher S, and Yi-Fen L. (2015) Exosome as biomarkers and diagnostics in bladder cancer AACR 106th Annual Meeting 2015 April 18-22, 2015; Philadelphia, PA [abstract][/panel]


Preparation of microRNA Samples from biofluids Understanding the roles of exosomes in cell-to-cell communication and their potential therapeutic applications