The DNA sequence of a chromosome can be altered in a number of ways including: substitutions, insertion, deletion. Thousands of chromosomal aberrations have been discovered in various different types of cancer.
Detecting Chrosmosome Abnormalities with Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)
FISH utilizes fluorescent probes to bind portions of DNA that have a high degree of sequence complementarity. This allows researchers to detect and localize specific DNA sequences on chromosomes or RNA targets in various cell and tissue types to determine the spatial-temporal patterns of gene expression within. In medicine, FISH can be used to diagnose or evaluate the progression of a disease, such as cancer, to identify a particular species or to perform various types of karyotyping.
Developing a FISH assay requires the use of oligonucleotide probe sets, like oligopaint probes, which are fluorescently labeled, single-stranded DNA oligonucleotides that can be used to visualize genomic regions ranging in size from tens of kilobases to many megabases. LC Sciences’ OligoMix offers a unique solution for researchers looking to generate oligopaint probes, as users are able create fully designed libraries of tens of thousands of specific, single-stranded oligonucleotide sequences for binding particular genomic regions. Several researchers have demonstrated the effectiveness of OligoMix in their FISH-assays and have provided model strategies for generating oligopaint probes through their work. The strategies they present are important because they provide an experimental model other individuals can emulate and apply to new areas of fluorescence hybridization.