miRNAs are known to play important roles in the diagnosis and prognosis of many cancers, and they are useful in developing targeted therapies.
Identification of novel molecular miRNAs and their target oncogenomic signatures have the potential to significantly impact clinical management.
The ability to predict drug efficacy based on the genetic makeup of individual tumors, and to make treatment decisions based on those differences is the hallmark of precision medicine.
Incorporating miRNA expression profiling on tissue samples can not only confirm diagnosis and categorize cancers and their subtypes, but may also predict drug response, helping clinicians define the precise therapy for each individual.
Distinguishing cancer subtypes is of clinical importance because they have different prognoses and subsequently different management plans. Attempts to distinguishing between subtypes are usually made by morphologic assessment, which is often inconclusive and not always accurate due to the complexity and mixed patterns of morphological features.
Additionally, identifying the expression of miRNAs in newly diagnosed patients could serve as potential biomarker for tumor aggressiveness, and such miRNAs could be useful for the screening of high-risk patients, and may also serve as targets for future drug development.